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(The Treasure of Learning)


1. It is prayed that the exalted union of Sri (Lakshmi) and Sripati (Viñëu) which is brightened by love for the purpose of great prosperity of the universe may bestow unlimited good the people who are attached to the ancient tradition.

2. Shri Rama Dayalu has written this work for the benefit of his brothers son and to enable him to learn and be proficient in the various facets of astrology, namely Prasna, Jama, Varshaphal, Adhana, and for good of the world. The treatise is based on principles and ideas propounded by the learned men in the past.

3. One who knows astrology should carefully work out his calculations according to the principles laid down by Aryabhatt to arrive at the exact number of ghatikas elapsed since last sunrise at any given time, the total period of any required day should be substracted from the maximum length of the day in the year. The figure so arrived at be multiplied by 7 and the product divided by 5. the quotient will be the length of the shadow (cast by a 12 inch stick) at mid day of the locality.

4. On the given day the length of the shadow indicated by the 12 inches stick is known as Ishtema. Ten may be added to it and then from the figure so arrived at, we may subtract the total length of the shadow at noon on the day. The remainder will be the divisor required. The figure to be divided by this divisor will be arrived at by multiplying the length of the required day by 5. After such a division the quotient will represent the number of Ghaties that have elapsed since last sunrise or to elapse for the next sun set.

5. Take the difference between the maximum duration of the day for the locality and the length of the day in question and subtract from this 1/16th part. 1/8th of the figure arrived at may then be subtracted from 1. To the result may be added 1/12th of the length of the shadow at the given time. This will be the divisor. Then we may divide half the length of particular day by this divisor. The quotient will indicate the number of ghaties that have elapsed since last sun-rise or to elapse till the next sunset as the case may be.

6.The time between one sunrise and the next sunrise (which is supposed to be near about 60 ghaties) consists of 21,600 breaths or pranas. One ghati is made of 360 breaths. The time taken to pronounce ten long syllables is one prana, and six pranas make one vinadee or vighati. Sixty vighaties or palas make one ghati 7. To enable us to know the exact number of ghaties etc., that have elapsed at any required time at night, the following method should be followed: 1) Count the star that is seventh from the star occupied by Sun; 2) Count the star that is rising in the East, and 3) Count the star that is exactly over your head. Then subtract 1 from (1), 15 from (2) and 8 from (3). Then we may multiply the three figures arrived at in the manner indicated above, separately by the number of ghaties representing one half of the duration of the given night and divide the results by 7. The number so becoming available in each case will be the same in each case and will be the ghaties etc. required.

8. There is another method of ascertaining the same information as mentioned in the previous sloka. From the longitude (Rasi, degrees, minutes etc.) of the star just over your head, subtract the longitude of the Sun. The result should be converted into degrees. If that exceeds 90, subtract 90. The remainder may then be divided by 6. The method of calculating this, is also given in the authors work named Khet Prakash.

9. If we calculate the exact number of degrees still to lapse in the Ascendant (Lagna) and also the degrees of the Moon in the Rasi occupied by the Moon and add 240 to the sum of these two. we will get the number of days falling between Adhana and Janma.

10. If the longitude of the Moon (chandra spast) at Adhana be the same as of the Lagna at birth, or if the longitude of the Moon at birth be the same as the longitude of Adhana Lagna, we may accept the time of birth as correct. If there is any difference the exact time of birth could be rectified by suitable adjustments by the rule of three method in the intervening days.

11. The author gives another method for rectifying the time of birth. If there are planets on both sides (2nd and 12th) of a Bhava be it a Kendra, Panaphara or Apoklima, we may calculate the difference between the longitude of these two planets and (a) subtract half of the difference from the longitude of the planet in the second Bhava, and (b) add the difference to the longitude of the planet in the twelfth Bhava. By doing so the longitudes of the planets in the 2nd and the 12th Bhava will become identical.

12. When the longitudes of the two Bhavas mentioned in sloka 11 be equal, the time of birth should be located there alone. If there is diference in the longitudes (Bhava spast) suitable alterations may be made by the rule of three process to fix the correct time of birth.

13. Another method to correct the Ishtkala at birth is as under Note the Parva Tithi i.e. Amavasya or Poornamasi just previous to the birth and work out the Lagna, Amsa etc. at the end of the Parva Tithi. Then we should make note of the following planets: 1) Lord of Lagna at birth, 2) Lord of Lagna at the end of Parva Tithi, 3) The planet presiding over that part of the day or night, 4) The lord of the Hora or hour at which the Parva Tithi ended, and 5) Lord of the Rasi occupied by a) The Sun at a day birth or b) The Moon at a night birth. Leaving off the Rasis occupied by the strongest of these five, if the Ansa I rim) of the strongest planet be the same as that of the Lagna Navamsa, or with that of the 10th, that will be the correct time required.

14. The effects of various Bbavas and planets in a birth chart can be assessed properly only after working out (the longitudes) of the Lagos, other Bhavas and their Sandhis, and of the planets. The true positions (longitudes) of the planets can be easily calculated with the help of an almanac of the concerned period.

15-16. The Isht-kala of the planets as of own in the almanac is known as Mishra-mana. If the Mjshra-mana (week day, ghaties, pala) is in advance of th e Ishtakala of birth (week day, ghaties, pala), then such week day ghaties, pala, may be deducted from the former. The remainder would be subtractive. If the Ishtkala, of birth is in advance of the Mishramana, its week day, ghaties, pala etc. may be deducted from the week day, ghaties etc. of the former. The remainder would be additive.

The remainder in days, ghaties etc. may be reduced to palas and multiplied by the rate (in minutes) of the motion given for the planets in question and divided by 3600. The quotient would be additive in case the planetary position relates to a period prior to the required time, and subtractive when the said period is subsequent to the one under consideration.

17. If a planet is in retrograde motion the process outlined in the previous sloka should be reversed in order to work out its position. In the case of Mandi its position on the several week from Sunday will be worked out by a Process of subtraction of 4 ghaties from each day (and finding the Lagna at the time), thus Sunday 26, Monday 22, Tuesday 18 and so on.

18. Find out the sayan longitude of Sun as counted from the equinoctial point is Aries 0, by adding ayanamsa lo its nirayan longitude. Then note in which sign is it posited. Take the portion of that sign still to be traversed by Sun. Also find out thy time of traversing it. Subtract it from the time of epoch. Note the number of signs passed in full from sunrise till then by deducting one by one the time taken by different signs to rise above the horizon. [Here the author presupposes that the Astrologer has at hand the Table of Houses and the rising time of different Lagnas or Ascendants for that place and that day].

Ultimately the Astrologer arrives at a rough or (Ashuddha) sign which cannot be further subtrached. Note the remainder, Using the Law of Three, i.e multiplying this time by 30 palas and dividing by the rising period of that sign in palas, the Bhukha or the elasped portion of that sign can be ascertained in degrees and minutes. Add to this the preceding signs reckoned from the equinoctial point i.e., Aries 0 and subtract ayanamsa from the Sun. The remainder is the (nirayan) longitude of the Ascendant.

19. This sloka gives the process by which the lagna is to be calculated for birth at night. We first note the actual time that has elapsed since last sunrise. The Dinmana or the length of the day is then subtracted from the total time that has elapsed since the last sunrise. If we add six signs to the position of Sun at last sunrise, we will get the position of the Sun at the sunset before birth. This is to be shown in degrees etc. The interval the portion that has elapsed since sunset and the birth time in ghaties etc. should be converted into distance by a process similar to the one mentioned iv the previous sloka but in a reverse manner.

20. In order to find out the exact position of the 10th house (Dasham Lagna) it is necessary to explain what Nata is. It is to be calcuked after knowing the exact time of birth. According to some learneds Nata is of four varieties, while others say that there are two kinds of Nata and two kinds of Unnata.

21. According to astronomers Unnata is measured from the nadir while Nata from mid-heaven. They both represent the interval between the planet concerned (here in this case, the Sun) and the Meridian. The astronomers are also of the opinion that Unnata is also of four varieties.

22. According to the opinion of these if the birth takes place at night six signs are added to the Sayan Sun (sayan longitude). If the birth takes place at day, no such addition is called for. The Nata (which even of the four varieties it may happen to be) should be converted into degree, minutes etc., by the same process which is adopted for working out the Lagna, but with this difference that the rates of several rising periods should be those obtaining at the Equator, by the process of addition or substraction its the case may be in order to calculate the correct position (of the mid-point or mid-heaven. But Kesava and others have expressed the view that tlic 10th house should be calculated from the Nata.

23. According to one school of thought the longitude of the 10th hcuse should be calculated as follows: if it is day birth we should note where the longitude of the place cuts the zodiac into two visible halves of about three signs each, one in the East and other in the West, and this intersecting is the mid-point or the centre of the 10th house and may be calculated from the Nata or meridian distance of the Sun at the time - East or West. Acording to the other view the Sun has to be fixed in the other half of the zodiac by the addition of six more signs and the position of the Nadir (or the Bhava-madhya of the 4th house) should be calculated through the Nata (and Unnata) or meridian distance between this point and this new (imaginary) Sun.

24. There is yet another method of working out the Bhava Madhya of the 10th house. The time intervening between the exact position of the Sun at birth and mid night in ghaties should be noted. The mid night should be taken as Ishta kala and its exact position in ghaties should be converted into degrees at rates (of rising periods of the several Rasis) obtaining at the Equator the result with the exact position of the fourth house. By adding six signs to this we will get the position of the 10th house.

25. After having calculated the position of Lagna and the 10th house, we may proceed to find out the positions of the other Bhavas. If we add six signs to the longitude of the 10th house we will get the longitude of the 4th house. Similarly by adding six signs to the Lagna we will get the longitude of the 7th house. If we deduct the longitude of Lagna from that of the 4th house and divide it by 3, this 1/3 portion when added to the longitude of Lagna, will get us the longitude of the second house (or Bhava). In the same manner deduct the longitude of the 4th house from that of the 7th house and add 3rd of the difference to the longitude of the 4th house. The result will be the longitude of the 5th house

26. Again if one third of the first and second remainders is respectively addtd to the longitude of the 2nd and 5th houses, we will get the longitudes of the 3rd and the 6th houses. Thus, it has been shown how the position (longitudes or Bhavas past) of the first six Bhavas (houses) has to be calculated. A half of two adjacent bhavas is called their Sandhi. The longitudes (Bhavas past) of other six Bhavas and their Sandhis may be obtained by the addition of six signs to each of the several Bhavas and Sandhies already obtained.

27. We should multiply the Nata ghaties, pala etc., to obtain the linear distance between the Sun and the mid-point in degrees etc. For calculating the position of the mid-heaven (10th house), the above distance in degrees may be deducted from the longitude of the Sun when the Nata is eastern and add the same when the Nata is in the west. However, the author considers this method as approximate. Just as in the case of the Sun, we may find out the distance in degrees etc., between the position of Sayana Lagna and the mid-night point (4th house). By suitable addition, the Sandhi next to the Lagna, the 2nd Bhava, its next Sandhi, the 3rd Bhava etc., can be obtained.

28. The difference (in degrees) between a planet and its nearest Sandhi multiplied by 20 and divided by the distance (in degrees) between the longitude of the Bhava and of its Sandhi represent the measure of effect (caused by the planet) in terms of unit of 1/20th portion. Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Jupiter arc respectively the lords of the signs from Mesha onwards and also of their Amsas.

29. The first Navamsa in the several signs from Mesha onwards begins respectively from Mesha, Kataka, Thula and Makara. The exaltation rasis of the various planets are as under: Sun-Mesha, Moon-Vrishabh, Mars-Makara, Mercury-Kanya, Jupiter-Kataka, Venus-Meenn; and Saturn-Thula. The highest exaltation points are : Sun-Mesha 10 degrees, Moon-Vrishabh 3 degrees, Mars-Makara 28 degrees, Mercury-Kanya 15 degrees, Jupiter-Kataka 5 degrees, Venus-Meena 27 degrees, Saturn-Thula 20 degrees.

The debilitation points are:-Sun-Thula (lowest debilitation point 10 degrees), Moon-Vrischika (lowest debilitation point 3 degrees), Mars-Kataka (lowest debilitation point 28 degrees), Mercury-Meena (lowest debilitation point 15 degrees), Jupiter-Makara (lowest debilitation point 5 degrees), Venus-Kanya (lowest debilitation point 27 degrees), Saturn--Mesha (lowest debilitation point 20 degrees).

30. Rahus exaltation sign is Mithuna, and Kanya is his own house (or swakshetra). The exaltation sign of Ketu is Dhanus and Meena is his swakshetra (own house). But according to some Vrischika is the exaltation sign of Rahu and Kumbha that of Ketu. In an even sign the Horas or halves belong respectively to the Moon and the Sun, and in an odd sign to the Sun and the Moon.

31. One third of a Rasi is called Drekkana. Each Drekkana is made of 10 degrees. The lor of first Drekkana is the owner of the sign ilself, the second Drekkana belongs to the owner of the 5th Rasi and the third Drekkana belongs to the owner of the 9th Rasi. A Dwadasamsa (or 1/12th of a sign) is made of 2 スth degrees and is counted from lhe sign itself e.g. from Mesha to Meena and from Vrishabh to Mesha and so on, and the lords of these signs own the Dwadasamsa. The Trimsamsas (1/30th position of a sign) allotted in an odd sign to Mars, Jupiter, Mercury and Venus are respectively 5, 5, 8, 7 and 5 degrees.

32. In an even sign Venus, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn and Mars have 5, 7, 8, 5 and 5 degrees, respectively. Thus the six vargas have been described. The friends of the several planets from Sun onwards are respectively (1) Jupiter (2) Jupiter, and Mercury. (3) Mercury and Venus, (4) the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn, (5) the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Saturn, (6) Mars, Mercury, Jupiter and Saturn and (7) Mercury Jupiter and Venus. The rest are enemies.

33-35. Saturn and Venus arc enemies of the Sun. Mercury is neutral to him and Moon, Mars, and Jupiter are his friends. This is their natural relationship. Mercury and the Sun are friends of the Moon. The other planets are neutrals. The Sun, the Moon and Jupiter are friends of Mars. Mercury is his enemy and Venus and Saturn are neutrals. The Sun and Venus are friends of Mercury. Moon is his enemy and the rest arc neutrals. The Sun, the Moon and Mars are friends of Jupiter. Mercury and Venus are his enemies and Saturn is neutral to him. Mercury and Saturn are friends of Venus. Mars and Jupiter arc neutral to him and the Sun and the Moon are his enemies. Mercury and Venus are friends of Saturn. Jupiter is neutral to him and the Sun, the Moon and Mars are his enemies. The natural relationship described above is in accordance with the view expressed by Satyacharya.

36. Planets posited or planets in three adjacent houses of planet are his temporary friends, or friends for the time being.

37. There are eight conditions of a planet as described below: 1) When a planet is in his sign of exaltation he is said to Deepta. 2) When a planet is in his own sign he is said to be Swastha or in healthy condition. 3) He is said to be Hrishtha or in happy condition when he is in the sign of a friend. 4) When a planet is in benefic varga he is to be in Shatru condition. 5) When a planet. has got bright rays, he is said to be in Shakta condition. 6) When a planet is eclipsed during the proximity with the Sun, he is said to be in Vilupta condition. 7) A planet is Deena or in poor condition when, he is posited in his sign of debilitation. 8) A planet is Peedita or troubled condition when, he has been defeated in planetary war or hc is posited between malefics.

38. The results of the various conditions of the Planers Will be in accordance with those conditions and their relative intensity being dependant on their strength etc. In an odd sign planet is said to be in infancy when he has advanced the first six degrees; he would be in his boyhood when he is in 6-12; he would be young(v) if he is in 13-18; he would be in old age if he is in 19-24; he would be Nasta when he is between 25-30. In an even sign, these divisions are counted in the reverse order.

39. The second half of Dhanus, the forepart of Makara, Mesha, Vrishabh and Simha are called quadruped signs. Kataka, Meena and the second portion of Makara are watery signs. The sign Vrischika is like a scorpion. Kanya, Thula, Mithuna and Kumbha are bipeds.

40. Mesha, Vrishabh, Mithuna, Kataka, Makara and Dhanus are strong at night. These rasis excluding Mithuna rise with their back. The remaining signs excluding Meena rise with their faces. Meena is called an Ubhayodaya Rasi.

41. The 180 portion or half of the Zodiac beginning from Lagna, that is, still to rise till the end of 7th Bhava is the invisible half. The remaining 180 is the visible half. The Eastern portion of the Zodiac comprises 180 from the 10th house, to the 4th house (nadir). The Western half of 180 begins from the nadir (4ih house) and ends at mid heaven, that is, the tenth house.

42. Thus ends the Sanketa on Definitions in Sanketanidhi, a work composed by Shri Rama Dayalu, the Astrologer. for the benefit of his elder brothers son Shri Ghasi Ram.