THE YAVANAJATAKA OF SPHUJIDHVAJA
1-10. . . . .
11. . . . with the twelve zodiacal signs, which are auspicious or inauspicious and which have various forms, colors, and shapes.
12. They say that this (zodiac), in which arise the seven planets, rises in a clockwise direction, and moves in strict accord with the (proper) order (of the signs) up to mid-heaven; the visible half continues on to the western (horizon).
13. . . . (their) distinctions are established . . .
14. The first (sign) is traditionally said to have the shape of a ram; it is called by the ancients the head of Kala. Its places are the paths of goats and sheep, caves, mountains, (hideouts of) thieves, and (places tihere there are) fire, metals, mines, and jewels.
15. The second is said to have the shape of a bull; it is the mouth and throat of the Creator. Its places are those of forests, mountains, ridges, elephants, herds of cows, and farmers.
16. The third is a couple (a woman and a man) holding a lyre and a club (respectively); it is the region of the shoulders and arms of Prajspati. Its places are those of dancers, singers, artisans, and women, and (places for) playing games, sexual intercourse, gambling, and recreation.
17. The fourth, which has the form of a crab standing in water and which is the region of the chest, is called Karki (Karkyos). To it belong meadows, wells, and sandy beaches, and its places are the pleasant play-grounds of goddesses.
18. The authorities state that the fifth is a lion on a mountain peak; it is the region of the heart of Prajapati. Its places are forests, fortresses, caves, woods, mountains, and the dwelling-places of hunters and kings.
19. A maiden standing in a boat on the waters and holding a torch in her hand is sixth, as those who are clever on the subject of time say; it is the belly of the Creator. Its lands are grassy and (suitable for) women, sexual intercourse, and crafts.
20. (The next) is a man bearing goods on a balance and standing in the market-place; it is the region of the navel, hips, and bladder. Its places are those of customs-duties, money, lyres, coins, cities, roads, caravanseries, and ripened grain.
21. The eighth has the shape of a scorpion in its hole; it is said to be the region of the penis and anus of the Lord. Its places are caves, pits, and holes, poisonous and stony areas, prisons, and (the abodes of) ants, worms, boa-constrictors, and snakes.
22. A man carrying a bow, one whose rear half is that of a horse, (is the ninth sign); they say this is the thighs of the Maker of the world. Its places are level land, (places where there are) horses both singly and in herds, alcoholic drinks, weapon-bearers, sacrifices, chariots, and horses.
23. The tenth is pointed out as being a sea-monster (makara) whose front is like a deer’s, but whose hind-end is like a fish’s; they say this is the region of the knees of the Creator. Its places are rivers, forests, woods, paths and so forth, marshes, and pits.
24. A pot being poured out (carried) on the shoulder of a man-this, the authorities say, is the eleventh (sign); it is the shanks. Its places are tanks, (fields of) poor grain, (haunts of) birds, and (areas suitable for) women, liquor-sellers, and gambling.
25. The last sign is a pair of fish in water; it is called by the best (authorities) the feet of Kaala. Its places are auspicious ones, (where there are) gods and Brähmaës, pilgrimages, rivers, oceans, and clouds.
26. Thus has been told the circle of the divisions of the limbs of the Creator who made the circular surface of the earth; there is a mutual connection of the signs, marks, and qualities (indicated by the zodiacal signs) and the (corresponding) parts of the bodies of men.
27. The various kinds of places and people pertaining to (each) sign have been briefly recounted in order by the ancients; these (various kinds) with their fixed natures are to be regarded as having their pl,aces and actions in the places and limbs connected with the (various) signs.
28. For those who are authorities say that this world of the immovable and the movable has its essence in the Sun and the Moon. (In them) are seen its coming into being and its passing away; even in the circle of the constellations does it have its essence in them.
29. The solar half (of the zodiac) begins with Magha (the first naksatra in Leo); the other half, the lunar, with Sarpa (the last naksatra in Cancer).
The Sun gives the (zodiacal) signs to the planets in order, the lunar signs (are assigned) in reverse order.
30. Others, however, state that every odd sign is solar, every even sign lunar; each solar sign is masculine and hard, each lunar sign feminine and soft.
31. In the odd signs, the first half is solar, the second lunar, they say; in the even signs, the Moon is lord of the first half, and the Sun of the second.
32. As the Sun takes Leo because of its qualities and the Moon Cancer, so they give the remaining signs from (their own) lordships to (those of) the planets in direct and reverse order (respectively).
33. In order (these planets) are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. . . . Therefore they are said to be each the lord of two houses, one lunar and one solar.
34. The Horas (horai) are famous . . . . The Drekanas (dekanoi) are renowned for their acquisition of images and forms.
35. There are portions (bhaagas) (of each sign), they say, belonging to the seven planets, and these (saptamsas) undergo modifications according to the planet. The navamsas, whose forms and actions (are taken into consideration) in genethlialogy, are (also) well known (as being useful) in making predictions, in calculating the periods of life (dashaas), and in determining the length of life.
36. In (each) sign there are dvadasamsas (dodecamoria) which fill the sign with their own influences. There are subtle modifications in respect to height or depth of action when (their) influences are combined with those of the terms (trimsamsas).
37. There are sixty solar portions (sauras) in each sign which are similar (to their signs) in what their involvement signifies. In each navamga of two hundred (minutes) there are seventy-two ciidapadas.
38. Eighteen hundred liptakas (lepta) are equal to thirty (degrees) ; in this (matter), the distinctions according to the qualities of each are (now) to be considered.
39. The first Hora (in a sign) belongs to the lord of the sign, the second to the lord of the eleventh sign (from it). The three Drekanas in it belong in order to the lord of that sign, to the lord of the twelfth sign, and to the lord of the eleventh sign.
40. They say that the saptamsas belong to the lords of the signs (in order) beginning with the lord of the sign itself and excluding repetitions; similarly –the dvidaiamSas are said to belong to the lords of the signs beginning with I (the lord of) the sign itself.
41. The first navamshas in (the signs) beginning with the first (Aries) are said to belong (in order) to the lords of Aries, Capricorn, Libra, and Cancer; if one counts (in groups of three) the signs beginning with (the four signs specified above, then their first) navamshas belong (in order) to the lords of (these) four signs.
42. In the odd signs, five degrees (constitute the term) of Mars, five (that) of Saturn, eight (that) of Jupiter, seven (that) of Mercury, and five (that) of Venus; in the even signs, their order is reversed.
43. The sauras, cudapadas, and liptikas are to be distributed through another zodiacal circle; each planet’s portion is said to be endowed with the nature of another planet according to the sign in which it is.
44. They call (a sign) a "collection" (rasi) in order to distinguish the activi-ties of these corresponding (parts) ; this is immeasurable like the waters of the sea because of doubts as to the variety of their mutual interrelationships.
45. The (twelve) signs beginning with Aries are of three sorts, called movable, immovable, and two-natured, with four (in each group) ; at every fourth (sign) is interposed a dividing line. They are influential (respectively) at the beginning, the middle, and the end of one’s life.
46. Taurus and Gemini are town signs; Capricorn, Scorpio, and Leo are forest signs; Pisces, that which travels on water (Cancer), and that which lives in the sea (Capricorn) are marsh signs.
47. The native is born with his nature affected by the changes or constancies of these signs with their natures, forms, and characteristics; if (the sign’s) navamsa is in the path of a planet, then the natives feel the effect of that.
48. The ascendent, which is the first sign, they call hora (horai), the fourth from it hipaka; one also finds it called rasatala (hell), the place of water, the place of the house, and the place of increase.
49. The seventh place from the ascendent, the descendent, is called jamitra (diametros) in the language of the Greeks; the tenth from the ascendent, the mid-heaven, they say, is the mesurana (mesouranma).
50. Those who are experts in horoscopy call these (four signs) the caturlagna ("four-fold ascendent") or the lagnacatustaya ("square of the ascendent"). One finds that the place of the Moon and its square are called menyaiva among the Greeks.
51. The fourth (place) from the first they call the quartile, the eighth death; one finds that the fifth is the simple trine (trikona), the ninth the trine of the trine.
52. They say that the sixth, which gives evil, is the satkona ("sextile"), the third the dushcikya; they call the eleventh the auspicious in every way, the twelfth the place of motion.
53. They say that a caturvilagna-sign ("cardine") is a kendra (kentron), the next group panaphara (epanaphora), and the third apoklima (apoklima) this is the three-fold designation of the ascendent (and so forth).
54. Know that the ascendent, (the second, and the twelfth) (are significant) with respect to property, body, thoughts, and so forth; the fourth, (the third, and the fifth) indicate things relating to the parents and children; and the descendent, (the sixth, and the eighth) indicate things relating to the wife and to coming and going, and (are significant) with respect to injuries such as illnesses.
55. Know that the mid-heaven, (the ninth, and the eleventh) indicate things relating to sovereignty and various successes, and (are significant) with respect to the treasury and the army. Know that a cardine is made auspicious by benefit planets, even if they are weak, and inauspicious by malefic planets.
56. So in these (cardines) is bound up the mundane creation, both good and bad, with all its results; and so also in them (is bound up) the birth (of individuals).
57. They say that the third, sixth, tenth, and eleventh signs from the ascendent or from the Moon are upacaya ("increasing"), the rest apacaya ("decreasing").
58. One finds that Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Libra, Pisces, Virgo, and Capricorn are the signs of exaltation of the Sun, the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Mercury, and Mars in that order . . . .
59. (The exaltation) of the Sun is in the tenth degree, of the Moon in the third, and of Jupiter in the fifth; one finds (that) of Saturn in the twentieth, of Venus in the twenty-seventh, and of Mercury in the fifteenth.
60. The entrance of Mars (into its exaltation) takes place in the twenty-eighth degree in the sign of its exaltation. They say that the sign opposite the exaltation and the degree having the same number (in that sign as the exaltation has in its sign) is the dejection.
61. They say that the thirty degrees in (each of) the four cardines from the ascendent are called the spikes. In every sign the navamsha belonging to that sign is named by the Greeks the vargottama ("highest in rank").
62. The mulatrikonas ("base-triplicities") of Mars, the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn are, in order, Aries, Taurus, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Sagittarius, and Aquarius.
63. The human signs together with Leo and Scorpio are said by the Greeks to rise head-first; Pisces rises both ways; and the rest always rise backwards.
64. Excepting the second, sixth, eleventh, and twelfth signs from that in which it is, a planet always aspects the rest; their aspect is good when it is in good signs.
65. The influence of the aspect is complete in opposition, less by a fourth in the two "squares" (the fourth and eighth places), a half in the two trines, and a fourth in the third and tenth signs.
66. With the revolution of the three (signs in a triplicity), the groups (of signs) beginning with the first (triplicity) are said to be in the directions beginning with East in order; in these the lords of the directions are the Sun and Venus, Mars, the Moon and Saturn, and Jupiter and Mercury.
67. When the signs are without planets, one tells from their power the arrangement of the door and the directions with respect to things which are lost, have been put down, or have disappeared, and with-respect to actions, childbirth, sleeping, or sexual intercourse.
68. The measure of the rising-times of the first and last signs is demonstrated with certainty to be two muhiirtas each; know that the measure of the rising-times (of the rest of the signs) in the two halves of the zodiac, taken (respec-tively) in direct and reverse order, is (two muhurtas) with a fifth (of that measure) added (successively to each).
69. Knowing that the signs are thus measured as being short, medium, or long, they consider the lengths of journeys as being similar to the divisions of the zodiac (and the limbs of the zodiacal man).
70. One finds that the ascendent or the sign occupied by the Moon is the body, the second place the family; the third they say is the brother, and the fourth relations.
71. The fifth place is called sons, the sixth they name the place of enemies; the seventh is the wife, and wise men say that the eighth is the place of death.
72. One establishes the ninth as the place of righteousness, and they say the tenth is work; the eleventh is the gaining of wealth, the twelfth its loss.
73. Whatever significances there are in any signs which are in the places beginning with the ascendent in order, these (significances), because of the positional, temporal, or other strengths of the signs, take on the natures of the significances in the places.
74. When the benefit planets have entered into (the places) which are called "body" and so forth, they cause these (aspects of life associated with the places) to flourish; but when the malefic planets are there or (the benefits) oppressed in bad places, they harm them.
75. Taking into consideration the good fortunes or bad fortunes of their places, which involve such things as the situations of the lords of the places and of the places themselves, the natures of the signs, and their powerful, medium, or weak aspects, one arrives at the death of men (after tracing out the rest of their lives).
76. A planet in its sign of exaltation gives a four-fold result; one in its mulatrikona half of that; one in its own house a full result; one in the house of a friend a half; one in the house of an enemy a third; and one in its dejection a fourth.
77. Planets in their enemies’ houses, in the signs of their dejections, overcome (in planetary conflicts), on bad "paths", or entering into the Sun destroy the good results and increase the bad ones.
78. The semicircle from the ascendent (through the sixth place) which is to come (above the horizon), they say, is strong, that which has risen (above the horizon) is weak. The cardines are the strongest of these (places), and they state that among them the strength of the ascendent is foremost.
79. The human signs are best in the ascendent, the quadruped signs in the mid-heaven; the water signs are strong in the hypogee, the insect sign in the descendent, and the signs of two forms in the mid-heaven.
80. The human signs are strong at the beginning of the day, the quadruped and the insect signs at mid-day, Leo at the end of the day, and the water signs at night; all the signs are said to be strong in the cardines.
81. The first four signs, Sagittarius, and Capricorn are strong at night, but the experts say that the second group of four signs together with Aquarius and Pisces are diurnal.
82. Those signs-ascendent and so on-are strong which are joined with their lords, the planets whose exaltations they are, ,Jupiter, or Mercury, or which are aspected by these (planets), if they are not aspected by other planets which are in the second or eleventh place.
83. Saturn, Jupiter, and the Sun are strong in the day-time, Mars, Venus, and the Moon at night; Mercury is strong either by day or at night. The benefits are strong in the bright paksa (from new moon to full moon), the others in the dark (from full moon to new).
84. Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, and Venus are strong to the North (of the equator), Saturn and the Moon to the South, and Mercury in both. All the planets are strong in their own vargas, when they have overcome their enemies, and when they are brilliant.
85. They are strong in retrogression, when leaving the Sun, and when they have just risen; the masculine planets are strong at the beginnings of the places, the feminine at the end, and the neuter in the middle.
86. The Moon is strong in the first part of the night, Venus at midnight, and Mars at the end of the night; Mercury is strong in the morning, the Sun at mid-day, Saturn at the end of the day, and Jupiter always.
87. They have their greatest strength in their exaltations, are of medium strength in their mulatrikonas and houses, and have their least strength when aspected by benefit planets or when in their friends’ houses.
88. Jupiter and Mercury are strong in the ascendent, the Sun and Mars in mid-heaven, Saturn in the descendent, and Venus and the Moon in the hypogee.
89. If a month is taken to begin with the first day of the bright paksha, in the first ten tithis the Moon is of medium strength, in the second it is at its greatest strength, and in the third at its least; but it is always strong if it is aspected by benefit planets.
90. The strength of a planet is established in three ways in determining about all actions-according to time, according to position, and according to strong aspects.
91. One finds strength in the ascendent when it is conjoined with or aspected by its own lord or by the lord of the exaltation which is in it, or when it is conjoined with Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury; but the ascendent has little strength in the two twilights.
92. This is said to be the method of determining the strength or weakness of the signs and planets according to the teaching of the Greeks; they say that, of the complete set of influences in horoscopy, there is an enormous number . . . .
93. Through the influence of the places and of the planets in them, which have’ the greatest, medium, the least, or no strength at the times of the natives’ births, men are born with the greatest, medium, or least strength.
94. The planets in the cardines exercise their influence in the first part of life, those in the succedent places in middle age, and those in the cadent places (apoklimas) in old age; (in each group) the order of precedence is determined according to their strengths.
95. At the commencement of life, one says that these are the three (groups) . . . in use; by means of these three, according to their strengths at the time of the child’s birth, one finds his condition (in each period of his life).
96. If the lord of the birth, the lord of the ascendent, or Jupiter is strong and in the ascendent, it exercises its influence at the time (of one) of (the native’s) four ages depending upon which of the four cardines it is in.
97. If the lord of the birth or a planet possessing its qualities and strength is in its exaltation, or in a cardine in its own varga, or in its own house not aspected by malefic planets, then it exercises its influence at the time of birth.
98. Thus they say that, of the many combinations, these are the yogas which produce complete happiness; whereas, if the planets were in their dejections or their enemies’ houses, it would produce complete misery.
99. Planets in signs which rise head-first are strong at the beginnings of their periods; those in signs which rise backwards at the ends; and those in signs which rise both ways exercise their influence in the middles.
100. Those planets which are at the beginning, end, or middle of the ascendant or the sign occupied by the Moon at birth are effective with their good or bad influences at the beginning, end, or middle of their periods respectively.
101. Those navamshas which are at the boundaries of the places at birth are considered to be in them (completely); but, except for the vargottamamshas, all those at the ascendent are considered to be malefic.
102. The benefit planets, when they are in the upacaya places from the ascendent, cause the births of wealthy people; when they are (in the upacaya places) from the Moon, they cause the births of men with many good qualities.
The malefic planets, however, (in similar situations cause the births) of lepers, paupers, and men who are lazy.
103. The Moon in the cardines of the Sun produces fools, paupers, and those who are mischievous and without character; in the next (four signs) it causes the birth of wealthy men; and in the cadent signs of those who are born at the heads of their families.
104. If (two) men are born with the ascendent or a cardine of the one in the other’s place, they are mutually helpful-or if they are born under signs (belonging to planets which are) mutually friendly.
105. The planets which are in the second, fourth, fifth, ninth, and twelfth places from another planet’s mulatrikona are its temporary friends, as is the weak planet in its exaltation.
106. The planets which are in the first, third, sixth, seventh, eighth, tenth, and eleventh places are the temporary enemies. I shall call these the "base" (maula) friends and enemies.
107. Jupiter is the friend of the Sun, but the rest are its enemies; all except Mars are the friends of Jupiter; all except the Sun are the friends of Mercury; and all except the Sun and the Moon are the friends of Venus.
108. One finds that Venus and Mercury are the friends of Mars, Jupiter and Mercury of the Moon, and all except Mars, the Sun, and the Moon of Saturn; know that the rest are enemies, and that the same relationships hold 4 among the men (born under the influence of the several planets).
109. Saturn, Mars, and the Sun are always malefic, Jupiter, Venus, and the Moon benefit. Mercury is benefit when it is not mixed with the other (planets) or their vargas; (when it is so mixed), it takes on a nature similar to theirs.
110. The malefic planets are hot, the benefit cold, and Mercury has a mixed nature; because of these is the result of time in the world the same with regard to things relating to generation and to decay.
111. There are said to be five great elements (mahabhutani)-earth, fire, water, air, and wind; their connections, from the body of the (cosmic) man (the zodiac), are Mercury, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn.
112. All of the principles of existence (sattvani) are life, love, knowledge, speech, truthfulness, ignorance, and mind; they pervade respectively the Sun, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn, and the Moon.
113. Bile is from Mars, bile and phlegm from the Sun, phlegm and wind from Jupiter and the Moon, phlegm from Venus, wind from Saturn, and wind mixed with the quality of its position from Mercury.
114. Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun are of excellence (sattva), Venus and the Moon of passion (rajas), and Saturn of ignorance (tamas); Mercury accepts the other characteristics depending on which planet it is in conjunction with.
115. Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun are masculine, Venus and the Moon femi-nine; Saturn and Mercury are neuter, their sex depending on their situations.
116. One finds that the Sun and the Moon are king, Mars a general, Mercury a prince, Jupiter and Venus advisors, and Saturn a slave. These categories apply on earth (among those under the influence of the several planets).
117. Jupiter is the caste-lord of Brahmanas, and so is Venus; Mars and the Sun are the caste-lords of Kshatriyas; Mercury and the Moon of Vaishyas; and Saturn of Sudras.
118. When the planets are victorious, so are their castes; but when they are shattered, their castes also are shattered and their qualities are co-mingled . . . .
119. The associations, acquisitions, misfortunes, and possessions (of the natives) depend upon the planets’ situations; by their natures they cause (the native) to be accompanied by good friends, wealth, sons, and wives.
120. Objects are green, coppery, red, white, black, silvery, or yellow; such are the colors (respectively) of Mercury, the Sun, Mars, Venus, Saturn, the Moon, and Jupiter.
121. Father, mother, brother, wife, relative, son, and slave of the natives; such are the natures (respectively) of the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, and Saturn.
122. The strength, old age, activity, happiness, sexual intercourse, intelligence, and status of men are from these planets through unalterable laws: Mars, Saturn, the Sun, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon.
123. The Sun is a handsome, square-limbed man, whose sparse hair is soft and curly and has loose ends. His eyes are sweet and wide in the description of Yavanesvara; his body gleams like molten gold.
124. It is his nature to be inscrutable and firm; he is a fierce, steadfast hero who is hard to assail, a powerful leader whose body-hair is yellow like purified gold and whose deeds are swift and cruel. His essence is of bone.
125. The Moon is white, shining, and handsome, with an appearance like that of smooth waters. His hair is fine and curly, his eyes wide, and his body beautiful in its symmetry; he is a youthful lover with a charming and spotless form.
126. He is wise, patient, and fond of courtesy, controlling himself in accordance with the laws of Manu. Speaking kindly and clothed in spotless garments, the playful Moon with pleasing eyes laughs softly and sweetly. His nature is of (the woman’s) blood in sexual intercourse.
127. Venus is graceful, having pleasing eyes and broad face, eyes, cheeks, and chest. He shines like silver, his smooth, fine, black hair hanging down with curly ends.
128. His thighs, arms, belly, and shoulders are heavy and drooping; his body is made beautiful by bright-colored garments and garlands. He is given over to a love of instrumental music, dancing, singing, beauty, sport, and sexual intercourse. His essence is semen.
129. Jupiter is yellow like ivory and gold and has a short, broad, fleshy, erect body. He speaks deeply, and his eyes and body-hair are sweet. He is pre-eminent in intelligence, memory, firmness, and resoluteness.
130. He bears authority in decisions relating to the Vedic sciences, sacrifices, sacred learning, politics, law, and the composition of poetry. Clad in white and with his hair tied up and matted, and with upright head, he is hard to assail. His essence is fat.
131. Mercury’s intellect is full and pure, his body dark, his curls (as dark as) duurva-grass, and his eyes handsome. He is pre-eminent in the composition of poetry, in craftsmanship, and in the arts, and is charming because of his gracefulness, jests, and so forth.
132. He is clothed in green; he is weak, defective( ?), and rotund. His speech is clear and cheerful, his body soft and of medium size. He has an unstable nature, taking on the characters of others and allowing his own to disappear. His essence is of skin.
133. Mars is a hot and passionate man with flaming curly hair and a terrible red body. The corners of his eyes are bloodshot, and he shines like blazing fire; he is powerful in his vehemence and terrifying like Kumara.
134. He is short and slender, with shining finger-nails and firm limbs. His speech is clear and pure. He is a hero, used to killing, taking, and opposing; clothed in red, he commits acts of violence and strength. His essence is of marrow.
135. Saturn has brown, inscrutable eyes. He is strong, but his limbs are curved by the bending of his head. He is tall and has thick, black, rough, and dreadful hair, and nails and teeth which are discolored and broken.
136. He is mean and very irascible; his actions are evil. Accustomed to hatred, he is a malicious master. In his black garments and looking like collyrium, thin and lazy Saturn has abandoned joy. His essence is of sinew.
137. They say that, if the planets are in the cardines in their own vargas and if they have temporal or other strength, then the natives have situations, castes, shapes, essences, and powers like theirs.
138. As these planets are strong and occupy their own dvadasamias, navamsas, and houses, they cause similar perfections of creation in the bringing forth of the limbs of men.
139. When the planets are not in their own vargas, then the signs and so forth are said to be strong, and it is by means of the natures of the vargas-according to the planets (which rule them)-that one decides upon the changes and complications (which affect the natives).
The first chapter in the Yavanajataka: the natures of the signs and planets.